Every process and business, and thereby project, is unique and the skills needed by the Engineer/Scientist can be different dependent upon the nature and the objectives of the project. In order to achieve sustainable gains/improvements, flexibility in programs is necessary. The degree and nature of the flexibility is dependent upon:
• The type of processes—for example, continuous, chemical processes often require mixture designs and service processes typically need survey development skills.
• The needs of the organization—for example, an organization that is primarily needing to drive a common focus on process improvement across the entire organization may need a more basic tool set combined with good motivational sessions. On the other hand, an organization that needs to resolve critical product failures whose effects have been mitigated without discovery of underlying causes will need advanced statistical tools combined with excellent engineering skills.
• The nature of change needed to achieve sustainable gains in process/product performance—for example, if the existing process structure is incapable of achieving the desired level of change in a critical response, then process redesign and lean manufacturing principles are necessary.
Our programs are designed using a 3-tiered approach to content customization. Some tools and training elements are universally applicable, since they represent the fundamental tools useful in any process, regardless of the industry type. These tools represent roughly 70% of the Sigma Science tool set. For these core tools, we present standard material customized by providing industry and function specific examples around the standard core. Secondly, some industries and functions will require specific tools to most efficiently drive business results. Those specific topics will be limited to those areas of the organization where benefit can be derived. As mentioned before, these topics represent 30% of the total training content. In addition to the material customization around a core as mentioned above, we may also conduct symposiums or follow-up sessions for program participants. In these symposiums we will present additional tools and methods not part of the core, but useful in project work in select areas. The delivery of material via symposiums gives those individuals with specific requests the ability to expand their knowledge while retaining the efficiency of the core program. With this in mind, we provide three examples of integrated programs we tailored to the needs of individual organizations. Within these programs, it is apparent some of the tools are foundational in nature while others are more specific to the needs of the individuals and/or organizations. These examples do not cover all of the situations but are simply a sample of some common situations.
“To believe that one specific tool set applies everywhere or across every issue is to ignore fundamental differences….”
Situation 1: Transactional, Business Process Training Content The content was adjusted to meet the needs of both product development and marketing research in the same program.
|Week 1||Week 2||Week 3||Individual Tracks|
|Overview: Philosophy of Sigma Science||The Nature of Variation: Special Cause/Common Cause Model||Measurement System Evaluation for Continuous Measurements||Product Design Design of Experiment(DOE)||Marketing Research Multi-variate Techniques|
|Critical Thinking: Thought Maps||Measurement Error in Attributes Data||Intro. to Control Charting||Full & Fractional||PCA|
|Process Characterization: Flowcharts, Process Maps, Relationship Diagrams, Spaghetti Diagrams||Developing Measurement Processes, Operational Definitions, Sampling||Components of Variance (COV) Studies: Sampling Continued||Experimentation in a Noisy Environ-ment||Cluster Analysis Survey Develop-ment Conjoint Analysis|
|Concept of Variation, Process FMEA||Sampling Strategies: The Art of Sampling to Get Answers||Attributes Measurement System Evaluation: Kappa & ICC Statistics||Regression|
|Project Definition and Scope of Projects||Process Restructuring for Administrative Processes: Batch vs. Paced-to-Demand||Systems Flow Exercise and Simulation|
|Project Descript.||Project Reviews||Project Work|
Situation 2: Chemical Division of a Larger Organization The content was adjusted to meet the needs of closed-loop, chemical processes with large quantities of on-line process data as well as prohibitive costs for equipment or process layout changes.
|Week 1||Week 2||Week 3||Week 4|
|Overview: Philosophy of Sigma Science||Review of Week 1||Review of Weeks 1 & 2||Review of Weeks 1, 2, & 3|
|Critical Thinking: Thought Maps||Regression Analysis||PCA Control Model||Evaluating Noise in DOE|
|Process Characterization: P&ID Diagrams & Process Maps||Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Stepwise Regression Procedures||Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression||DOE: Mixture Designs|
|FMEA||Introduction to Multivariate Control Charting Methods: T2& Q||Crossed vs. Nested Sampling Studies||DOE: Evolutionary Operations (EVOP)|
|The Nature of Variation: Special Cause/Common Cause Model||Sampling Strategies and Advanced Sampling||DOE: Full Factorials||DOE: Covariate Analysis|
|Introduction to Principal Component Analysis (PCA)||Components of Variation (CoV) Studies||DOE: Fractional Factorials||DOE: Fractional Factorials with Restrictions on Randomization and Factor Relations Diagrams (FRD)|
|Measurement System Evaluation (MSE)||Project Reviews: Thought Map & Process Map Development||Project Work & Reviews||Project Work & Reviews|
|Sampling & Sampling Trees|
Situation 3: High Volume, Discrete Parts Manufacturing, Assembly and Refurbishment In order to increase productivity and reduce the amount of scrap, the project work needed to focus on implementing fundamental manufacturing practices, reducing variation, and implementing one-piece flow. Hence, the training was designed to accommodate the needs of the organization.
|Week 1||Week 2||Week 3||Week 4|
|Philosophy of Sigma Science Business Case Development Process Characterization: Process Maps, Spaghetti Charts, etc. Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA) The Nature of Variation: Special Cause/Common Cause Model Sampling Strategies Numerical Evaluation of Metrics (NEM) Measuring Processes Measurement System Evaluation (MSE) Critical Thinking Thought Process Maps||Philosophy of DOE Full and Fractional Factorial DOEs Experimenting in Noisy Environments Practical, Graphical and Quantitative Analysis Techniques Introduction to Factor Relationship Diagrams Project Reviews User Guides||Advanced Sampling: Nested, Systematic and Crossed Blocking Advanced Quantitative Methods ANOVA Case Studies and Project Reviews Product Delivery System Design (CONWIP to Kanban) Simulation Project Reviews User Guides Expansion||(Topics selected based on class needs) – Below is a partial list of topics to draw from Covariates Attribute and Ordinal DOEs Variation & Experimentation Factorial with Restrictions (Split-Plots) Regression Analysis Ordinary Least Squares Application Curvature and RSM Capability and Statistical Tolerancing Diagnostics User Guides and Project Reviews|